1. The Invention of Writing

c 15,000–10,0050 BCE Cave paintings at Lascaux    CE
c 3600 BCE Blau Monument combines images and early writing
c 3500 BCE Sumerians settle in Mesopotamia c 3200 BCE Menes, first pharaoh, unites Egypt
c 3100 BCE Early Sumerian pictographic scripts on clay tablets
c 3100 BCE King Zet’s ivory tablet, earliest Egyptian pictographic writing
c 2900 BCE Early cylinder seals
c 2750 BCE Formal land-sale contracts written in cuneiform
c 2600 BCE Early surviving papyrus manuscripts
c 2500 BCE Wedge-shaped cuneiform
c 2345 BCE Pyramid texts in tomb of Unas
c 1930–1880 BCE Law Code of Hammurabi
c 1739 BCE Scarab of Ikhnaton and Nefertiti
c 1500 BCE Hieratic scripts
c 1420 BCE Papyrus of Ani
c 1300 BCE Early Book of the Dead papyrus scrolls
c 1100 BCE Iron widely used for weapons and tools
c 600 BCE Nebuchadnezzar builds the Tower of Babel
c 400 BCE Demotic script
c 197 BCE Rosetta Stone
332–330 BCE Alexander the Great conquers Egypt

2. Alphabets

c 2000 BCE Earl2y Creta0n pict0ograph0s,PhaistosBDisk CE
c 1500 BCE Ras Shamra script
c 1000 BCE Early Greek alphabet
c 850 BCE Aramaic alphabet
516 BCE Israelites return from Babylonian exile
447–432 BCE Parthenon built in Athens
429 BCE Sophocles’ tragedy Oedipus Rex
323 BCE Alexander the Great dies in Babylon
300 BCE Euclid’s geometry
c 190 BCE Parchment used for manuscripts
44 BCE Julius Caesar assassinated 29 BCE Vergil’s Georgics
c 100 CE Pompeiian wall writing
c 114 CE Trajan’s Column
c 250 CE Greek uncials
c 200–500 CE Roman square capitals and rustic capitals
c 500 CE Early Arabic alphabet
c 1000 CE Naskhi becomes dominant Arabic alphabet
1446 CE Hangul, Korean alphabet

3. The Asian Contribution

c 1800 BCE  Legendary Ts’ang Chieh invents writing
c 1500 BCE Oracle bone writing
551 BCE Confucius is born
c 528 BCE Siddhartha Gautama becomes the supreme Buddha
c 221 BCE Shih Huang-ti unites China: the Great Wall underway
c 250 BCE Small-seal calligraphy 105 CE Ts’ai Lun invents paper
c 165 CE Confucian classics carved in stone
c 200 CE Regular-style calligraphy
c 300 CE Chops are used as identifying seals;
chops used in Han dynasty
c 770 CE Early datable Chinese relief printing; printed Buddhist charms
868 CE Diamond Sutra
c 1000 CE Chinese calligraphy printed with perfection
c 1000 CE Gunpowder in use in China
c 1040 CE Pi Sheng invents movable type in China
1200 CE c 1150 CE Compass is invented

4. Illuminated Manuscripts

330 CE Constantine moves Roman capital to Constantinople
425 CE Vatican Vergil
c 500 CE Uncial lettering flourishes
570 CE Birth of Muhammad
c 600 CE Insular script
c 680 CE Book of Durrow
c 698 CE Lindisfarne Gospels
751 CE Arabs learn papermaking from Chinese prisoners
781 CE Alcuin establishes school at Aachen;
Caroline minuscules are developed
c 800 CE Book of Kells, Coronation Gospels
800 CE Charlemagne crowned emperor
1095–99 CE First Crusade
1163 CE Notre Dame Cathedral begun in Paris
1209 CE Cambridge University founded c 1265 CE Douce Apocalypse
c 1265 CE Marco Polo travels to China
1215 CE King John signs Magna Carta
c. 1300 CE Ormesby Psalter
c 1320 CE Firearms used in Europe
c 1387 CE Chaucer begins The Canterbury Tales
1413–16 CE Les tres riches heures du duc de Berry
c 1450 CE Printing with movable type in Germany
c 1478 CE Washington Haggadah

5. Printing Comes to Europe

1276 Paper mill established in Fabriano1, Italy 270
c 1300 Relief printing on textiles in Europe
c 1306 Giotto completes the Arena Chapel frescoes 1321 Dante completes The Divine Comedy
1348 Black Death decimates Florence, Italy
1423 Saint Christopher, early dated woodblock print
c 1450 Gutenberg perfects typographic printing; the Master
of the Playing Cards perfects copperplate engraving c 1455 Gutenberg and Fust complete 42-line Bible
1457 Fust and Schoeffer, Psalter in Latin with two-color
1468 Gutenberg dies
printed initials
c 1460 Block books in use in the Netherlands

6. The German Illustrated Book

c1460Pfister,1stprintedbookwithillu1stratio4ns 60
1462 Mainz, Germany, sacked by Adolf of Nassau
1465 Sweynheym and Pannartz, 1st Italian printing press;
1st printed music
1470 Freiburger, Gering, and Kranz,
1st printing press in France
1475 Caxton, 1st English-language typographic book
1484 Botticelli, Birth of Venus
1486 Reuwich illustrates trip to Holy Land
1493 Koberger publishes the Nuremburg Chronicle
1498 Dürer, The Apocalypse
1514–17 de Brocar, Polyglot Bible
1528 Albrecht Dürer dies
1534 Luther’s first German-language Bible
1538 1st printing press in Mexico

7. Renaissance Graphic Design

1469 de Spira, 1st printing press in Ven1460
1470 Jenson’s roman typeface
1476 Ratdolt, Calendarium has 1st complete title page
1492 Columbus sails to America
1494 Manutius establishes the Aldine Press in Venice
1494 France invades Italy
1495 Griffo designs & cuts Bembo type for Manutius
1501 Griffo designs & cuts 1st italic type for Manutius’s pocket book
1503 Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa
1505 Geoffroy Tory returns to France from Italy
1509 Henry VIII becomes king of England
1512 Michaelangelo completes Sistine Chapel ceiling
1517 Luther launches the Reformation
1522 Magellan’s expedition circumnavigates the globe
1522 Arrighi’s writing manual
1525 Tory, 1st Book of Hours
1527 French army sacks Rome
1529 Tory, Champ Fleury
c 1530 Garamond establishes an independent type foundry
1555 Plantin establishes his press at Antwerp
c 1557 Granjon, Civilit type 1561 Kerver, French version of Poliphili
1569–72 Plantin, Polygot Bible 1569 Mercator, modern cartography
1594 Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet
1605 Cervantes, Don Quixote; Shakespeare, Macbeth
1621 Weekly Newes, 1st English newspaper 1640 Daye, Whole Booke of Psalmes
1667 Schipper, Calvin’s Commentary
1721 Bach, Brandenburg Concertos

8. An Epoch of Typographic Genius

1692 Louis XIV commissions the Romain du Roi
1700 Sewall, The Selling of Joseph, 1st American pamphlet protesting slavery
1702 1st book printed with the Romain du Roi
1722 Caslon, 1st Caslon Old Style font
1726 Swift, Gulliver’s Travels 1737 Fournier le Jeune standardized type sizes; John Pine, Opera Horatii
1742 Fournier le Jeune, Modèles des charactères de l’imprimerie
1757 Baskerville, Vergil
1760 George III becomes king of England
1764 Fournier le Jeune, Manuel Typographique
1769 Watt patents steam engine
1770 Boston Massacre
1771 Luce, Essai d’une nouvelle typographique
1774 Louis XVI becomes king of France
1776 American Declaration of Independence
1784 Didot, true modern style type
1789 Washington becomes 1st U.S. president
1789 Blake, Songs of Innocence
1789 French Revolution begins, Bastille stormed
c 1790 Bodoni, typefaces bearing his name
1790 Bewick, General History of Quadrupeds
1793 Louis XVI beheaded
1799 Napoleon rules France
1680 – 1689 Peter the Great becomes czar of Rus
1818 Bodoni, Manuale tipograpfico

9 Graphic Design and the Industrial Revolution

c 1765 Cotterell, 12-line pica type
1796 Senefelder invents lithography
1800 Lord Stanhope, cast-iron press
1803 Thorne, 1st fat-face type; 1st production paper machine
1804 Napoleon crowned emperor
1808 Beethoven, Fifth Symphony
1814 Koenig, steam-powered press
1815 Figgins, 1st Egyptian type
1816 Caslon, 1st sans-serif type
1821 Champollion deciphers hieroglyphics
1823 Monroe Doctrine
1826 Niépce, 1st photograph from nature
1828 Democratic Party formed
1831 Henry, 1st electric motor
1833 Figgins, 2-line Pearl, Outline
1834 Berthold, Akzidenz Grotesk
1834 Braille, writing system for blind
1835 Talbot, 1st photographic negative
1839 Daguerre announces the daguerreotype process
1843 Buford, Boston lithography firm
c 1843–45 Hill & Adamson, early portrait photography
1844 Morse, telegraph 1846 Hoe, rotary lithographic press
1847 Pickering, The Elements of Euclid
1848 Marx, The Communist Manifesto
1850s–1860s Woodtype posters dominate the hoardings
1851 Melville, Moby Dick
1852 Paxton, Crystal Palace
1856 Prang opens Boston lithography firm
1859 Darwin, The Origin of Species
1861 U.S. Civil War begins
1862 Nast joins Harper’s Weekly
1865 Crane, his 1st children’s book
1865 Lincoln assassinated
1867–69 O’Sullivan geological expedition
1870s Woodtype posters begin to decline as lithography becomes dominant
1874 Prang, 1st American Christmas card
c 1877 Muybridge, sequence photography
1879 Greenaway, Under the Window
1880 Horgan, experimental halftone screen
1880s Dry plates replace wet plates
1884 Twain, Huckleberry Finn
1885 Ives, halftone screen
1886 Mergenthaler, Linotype machine
1887 Lanston, Monotype machine
1888 Eastman Kodak camera makes photography “every person’s art form”
1893 Ford’s 1st gasoline engine 1901 Queen Victoria dies

10 The Arts and Crafts Movement and Its Heritage

1861 Morris opens art-decorating firm
1869 Suez Canal opens
1877 Morris makes his 1st public lectures on design
1882 Century Guild is formed
1883 Mackmurdo, Wren’s City Churches title page
1883 Stevenson, Treasure Island
1884 Art Worker’s Guild formed
1884 Hobby Horse published
1886 Statue of Liberty
1888 Morris designs Golden type
1891 Edison, kinetoscopic camera
1893 Morris, Chaucer type
1894 Morris & Crane, The Story of the Glittering Plain
1894 Nicolas II becomes Russian czar
1895 Goudy’s Camelot, his 1st typeface
1896 Morris, Kelmscott Chaucer; Pissarro founds Eragny Press; Rogers joins Riverside Press; Hornby starts Ashendene Press; Morris dies
1902 Ashbee, Essex House Psalter
1903 Doves Press Bible
1918 Koch forms workshop community1
1940 Goudy, Typologia

11 Art Nouveau

1682 Moronobu, Young Man with Two C1ourtes6ans
1740 Masanobu, linear perspective in ukiyo-e prints
1765 Harunobu, multicolor ukiyo-e prints
Late 1700s Utamaro, portraits of courtesans
1830–32 Hokusai, Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji
c 1856–59 Hiroshige, Evening Squall at Great Bridge near Atake
1866 Chéret, La biche au bois poster
1874 Tiffany opens glassworks
1876 Bell, telephone
1879 Edison, electric lamp
1881 Barnum & Bailey, circus
1883 Grasset, Histoire des quatre fils Aymon
1886 Grasset, 1st poster
1889 Van Gogh, Starry Night
1890 Chéret, Legion of Honor
1891 Toulouse-Lautrec, Moulin Rouge poster
1893 Beardsley, Mort D’Arthur; Wright opens architectural office
1894 Toorop, Delft salad oil poster; Mucha, Gismonda poster; Rhead returns to America; Bradley, Inland Printer covers
1895 Bing, l’Art Nouveau gallery opens
1896 Jugend, 1st issue; Steinlen, La Rue poster; Ricketts begins Vale Press
1898 Behrens, The Kiss
1901 Dudorvich, Bitter Campari poster

12 The Genesis of Twentieth-Century Design

1895 McNair and Macdonalds, Glasgow
1897 Vienna Secession formed
1898 Ver Sacrum begins publication; Berthold Foundry, Akzidenz Grotesk
1898 Curie discovers radium
1899 Moser, 5th Vienna Secession poster
1900 Behrens, sans-serif running text; Klingspor issues Eckmannschrift
1901 Klingspor issues Behrensschrift
1902 Moser, 13th Vienna Secession poster; Wright, 1st prairie-style house
1904 Lauweriks teaches geometric grid composition in Germany
1903 Hoffmann & Moser, Vienna Workshops are established
1907 Deutscher Werkbund formed; Loeffler designs Fledermaus
1910 Behrens, AEG lamp poster fine a
1896 Wright designs The House Beautiful
1909 Behrens and Bernhard, AEG turbine hall

13 The Influence of Modern Art

1897 Mallarmé, Un coup de dés
1901 Queen Victoria dies
1903 The Wright brothers, 1st airplane flight
1905 Einstein, theory of relativity
1905 The Bridge expressionist group
c 1909?1912 Analytical cubism
1906?1907 Picasso, influenced by Cézanne and African art
1908 Model T Ford
1909 Marinetti, Manifesto of Futurism; Braque, Pitcher and Violin
1909 NAACP formed
c 1911 Kandinsky, nonobjective paintings
1911 The Blue Rider expressionist group
1910 Kandinsky, Concerning the Spiritual in Art
c 1913?1914 Synthetic cubism
1913 New York Armory Show
1914 de Chirico, Departure of the Poet
1914 Kafka, The Trial
1915 Marinetti, “Mountains + Valleys + Streets x Joffre”
1916 Dada founded; Arp, “chance” in art
1917 Ball, Dada sound poems; Coburn, Vortographs
1918 Apollinaire, Calligrammes
1918 Hausmann & Höch, photomontages
1918 Czar Nicolas II executed
1919 Schwitters, Merz exhibition; Heartfield, Grosz & others found Berlin Dada; Léger, La Fin du Monde…
1922 USSR formed
1923 Hitler, Mein Kampf
1924 Breton, Manifesto of Surrealism
1924 Mussolini and Fascists consolidate power in Italy
1927 Depero, Dinamo Azari
1929 Man Ray, “Sleeping Woman”
1934 Heartfield, “Yuletide” poster
1930 Gandhi leads protest against salt tax
1933 Nazis raid Heartfield’s apartment

14 Pictorial Modernism

1894 Beggarstaffs agency founded
1890 1905 Bernhard, Priester matches poster
1908 Hohlwein, PKZ poster
1911 Erdt, Opel poster
1914 World War I begins
1915 Leete, Kitchener “wants you” poster
1917 Klinger, 8th war loan campaign poster; Flagg “Uncle Sam”
1918 Kauffer, Daily Herald poster
1918 World War I ends
1920 U.S. women gain the vote
1925 Cassandre, L’Intransigeant poster
1925 Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby
1923 Binder, Vienna Music and Theater posters
1927 Cassandre, Etoile du Nord poster
1927 Lindbergh, first solo flight across the Atlantic; Stalin rules Russia
1929 Stock market crash
1931 Empire State Building
1932 Cassandre, Dubonnet poster
c 1936-1943 Hohlwein, designs for Nazis
1936 Roosevelt reelected Late
1930s Binder, Carlu, Cassandre & Kauffer to the U.S.
1940s Games, World War II posters

15 A New Language of Form

1910 Mondrian learns of cubism
1912 Wright, Coonley house with geometric stained glass windows
c 1913 Malevich, 1st suprematist paintings
1916 Van der Leck, Batavier Line poster
1917 De Stijl movement & journal begins
1917 Russian Revolution begins
1918 Wendingen magazine founded
1918 Van Doesburg, Composition XI
1919 Lissitzky, “Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge” poster
1920s Vladimir Lebedev becomes father of the 20th-century Russian picture book
1922 Berlewi, mechano-faktura theory
1923 Mayakovsky & Lissitzky, For the Voice
1924 Lissitzky, The Isms of Art
1924 Rodchenko, serial covers, Mess Mend
1924 Rietveld, Schroeder house
1928 Warner Brothers, 1st sound motion picture
1929 Lissitzky, Russische Ausstellung poster
1930 Gustav Klutis extols Soviet accomplishments in photomontage posters
1931 Van Doesburg dies; De Stijl journal ends
1932 Low point of Depression; Roosevelt elected president
1934 Mao Tse-tung leads Long March
1936 Roosevelt re-elected 1939 Sutnar emigrates to U.S.
1941 Lissitzky dies 1944 Mondrian dies

16 The Bauhaus and the New Typography

1916 Johnston, Railway Type
1919 Gropius founds Weimar Bauhaus & publishes manifesto
1920 Klee joins Bauhaus
1922 Kandinsky joins Bauhaus
1923 Moholy-Nagy replaces Itten at Bauhaus; Bauhaus
exhibition, Tschichold attends; Werkman, 1st Next Call
1925 Bauhaus moves to Dessau; Bayer, universal alphabet; Tschichold, Elementare typographie
1927 Renner, Futura
1928 Gropius, Moholy-Nagy & Bayer leave Bauhaus; Tschichold, Die Neue Typographie; Zwart, NKF catalogue; Koch, Kabel
1930 Mies van der Rohe moves Bauhaus to Berlin
1931 Gill, Essay on Typography 1932 Morison, Times New Roman
1933 Nazis close Bauhaus, arrest Tschichold
1933 Beck, London Underground map
1933 Hitler becomes German chancellor
1935 Matter, Pontresina poster
1947 Marshall Plan
1947 Tschichold joins Penguin books
1949 Mao Tse-tung’s communist forces seize power in China
1956 Sandberg, Experimenta typographica

17 The Modern Movement in America

1924 Erté, 1st Harper’s Bazaar covers
1920 1928 Agha becomes art director of Vogue
1934 Brodovitch art directs Harper’s Bazaar
1935 WPA hires artists for design projects 1935 Rural Electric Administration
1937 Beall, REA posters
1936 Jacobson, design director for CCA
1937 Picasso, Guernica Late 1930s Bauhaus masters Albers, Bayer, Breuer, Gropius, Mies van der Rohe & Moholy-Nagy emigrate to U.S. 1939 Binder, New York World’s Fair poster; Moholy-Nagy, School of Design
1939 Germany invades Poland; World War II begins
1939 New York World’s Fair
1940 Kauffer, Greek resistance poster
1940 Churchill, “Blood, toil, tears, and sweat” speech
1941 Carlu, “America’s answer! Production” poster
1943 Alexander Liberman becomes art director of Vogue
1943 Mass production of penicillin
1944 Sutnar, Catalog Design
1945 World War II ends
1945 United Nations formed
1945 CCA Allied Nations advertisements
1946 Nuremberg war trials
1948 Matter, Knoll chair ads
1950 CCA “Great Ideas” ads begin

18 The International Typographic Style

1930s Bill, Stankowski & others, constructivist graphic design
1942 Bill, Moderne Schweizer Architektur
1944 Herdeg, Graphis 1st issue
1947 Ruder & Hofmann join Basel School of Design faculty
1948 Huber, “Gran premio dell’ Autodrome” poster
1950 Ulm School of Design planned; Odermatt opens studio; Zapf designs Palatino
1950 Korean War begins 1950 First Xerox machine produced
1952 de Harak opens New York studio
1952 Polio vaccine developed 1953 Stankowski, Standard Elektrik Lorenz AG logo 1954 Frutiger, Univers fonts 1954 Brown vs Board of Education ends school segregation in the U.S. 1954 Henri Matisse dies 1955 Casey joins MIT 1955 Albert Einstein dies 1956 DNA molecule first photographed 1957 Miedinger, Haas Grotesque (later named Helvetica by Stempel foundry)
1958 European Economic Community becomes effective
1959 Neue Grafik Design begins publication; Hofmann, Giselle poster
1960 Müller-Brockmann, der Film poster 1967 Ruder, Typography: A Manual of Design 1968 Ulm School of Design closes; Stankowski, Berlin design
program; Zapf, Manuale Typographicum 1970s International Typographic Style becomes dominant
throughout the world 1980 Müller-Brockmann, concert poster series
1991 Jacqueline S. Casey dies 1996 Müller-Brockmann

19 The New York School

1939 Thompson, 1st Westvaco Inspirati1ons
1940 Print magazine, 1st issue
1940s Rand, Directions covers
1941 Japan attacks Pearl Harbor
1945 Lustig, New Directions book covers
1945 United Nations founded
1947 Rand, Thoughts on Design
1949 Doyle Dane Bernbach founded
1950 Alvid Eisenman creates graphic design program at Yale University
1950s Brodovitch’s editorial design classes inspire a generation
1952 Eisenhower elected president
1952 Korean War ends
1953 Wolf art directs Esquire
1954 Senate censures McCarthy
1955 Bass, Man with the Golden Arm graphics
1957 Brownjohn, Chermayeff & Geismar formed
1958 Storch redesigns McCall’s
1959 Brodovitch retires; Wolf art directs Bazaar; Communication Arts, 1st issue
1960s Lois, Esquire “statement” covers
1968–71 Lubalin, Avant Garde magazine
1970 International Typeface Corporation begins; Lubalin & Carnase, Avant Garde typeface
1995 Bradbury Thompson dies
1996 Paul Rand dies

20 Corporate Identity and Visual Symbols

1940 Golden becomes art director of CBS
1945 Olden joins CBS
1946 Dorfsman joins CBS
1947 Pintori joins Olivetti
1948 Gandhi assassinated
1950 Korean War begins
1951 Golden, CBS symbol
1951 Color television introduced
1951 UNIVAC I, 1st mass produced computer
1954 Matter, New Haven railroad program New York and Hartford
1955 Disneyland opens
1956 Rand, IBM logo; Pintori, Olivetti Electrosumma  poster
1957 Soviet satellite Sputnik launches the space age
1959 Golden dies 1959 Castro ousts Batista from Cuba
1960 Chermayeff & Geismar, Chase Manhattan identity; Beall, International Paper logo
1962 Aicher & staff, Lufthansa identity system
1964 Mobil identity program
1968 Wyman, Mexico City Olympics
1972 Massey, Labor Department identity; Aicher & staff, Munich Olympics
1977 U. S. National Parks Unigrid system
1984 Los Angeles Olympics
1985 Manhattan Design, MTV logo

21 The Conceptual Image

1953 Trepkowski, “Nie!” poster
1954 Testa, Pirelli graphics; Push Pin Studios forms
1956 Trepkowski dies; Tomaszewski leads Polish movement, evolves toward a colorful collage approach
1958 Supreme Court orders school desegregation
1959 Twen magazine launched
1960 Kennedy elected president
1962 Cuban missile crisis
1962 Andy Warhol exhibits his Campbell’s Soup Cans
1962 Berg joins CBS Records
1963 Kennedy assassinated
1964 Massin designs The Bald Soprano
1965 U.S. troops sent to Vietnam
1966 Kieser, “Alabama Blues” poster
1967 Wilson & Moscoso, psychedelic posters; Glaser, Dylan poster
1968 Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. assassinated
1969 Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin land on the Moon
1970 Max, Love graphics 1970s Richards, Pirtle & others, Texas becomes a major design center
1974 Nixon resigns as president
1976 Rambow, 1st S. Fischer-Verlag poster
1980 Janiszewski, Solidarity logo; Rambow, Die Hamletmachine poster
1988 Rambow, South African Roulette poster
1996 Glaser, “Art Is . . . Whatever” poster

22 Postmodern Design

1962 Venturi, Grand’s Restaurant super
1960 1966 Solomon, Sea Ranch environmental graphics
1968 Weingart joins Basel School of Design faculty
1969 Compuserve, 1st commercial online service graphics
1970s Postmodernism designates design breaking with modernism
1970 Kent State shootings
1970 Computer floppy disk is introduced
1973 U.S. pulls most troops out of Vietnam
1975 Microsoft founded
1981 AIDS epidemic recognized
1981 Memphis exhibition in Milan
1981 MTV launched 1986 U.S. space shuttle Challenger explodes during launch
1995 Dan Friedman dies

23 National Visions within a Global Dialogue

1959 Rodrigues “Visit Portugal” poster
1950 1962 Fletcher, Forbes & Gill founded
1963 Tanaka design studio opens; Total Design opens in Amsterdam 1964 Kamekura, Tokyo Olympics posters
1965 Oxenaar, 1st new Dutch currency
1969 Spencer, Pioneers of Modern Typography
1970 António Salazar dies
1970 Igarashi, Sato open studios
c 1975 Igarashi, isometric alphabets
1976 Oxenaar, PTT Aesthetic Advisor
1977 Studio Dumbar opens; Wild Plakken forms
1978 1st Hard Werken magazine
1979 Iranian revolution
1981 Tanaka, “Nihon Buyo” poster
1986 Oxenaar, Dutch 250-guilder note
1987 Altmann, Ellis & Greenhalgh cofound Why Not Associates
1989 PTT privatized; visual identity by Studio Dumbar
1989 Estrada opens own graphic design studio
1989 Charles S. Anderson Design Co. formed
1989 Berlin Wall comes down
1990 Fletcher, Victoria and Albert logo
1990 Hubble Telescope launched into space
1991 Soviet Union collapses
1991 van Toorn becomes director of the Jan van Eyck Academy
1994 Hard Werken becomes Inízio
1994 Momayez, cover for Blue, A Collection of Forugh Milani’s Poetry
1995 Oklahoma City bombing
1995 Hans Dieter Reichert cofounds Bradbourne Publishing & begins baseline magazine
1996 HIV infects 27.9 million people
1997 Stolk, Briners & van den Dungen form Experimental Jetset
2002 Rodiguez, “Goya Posada”
2003 First Iranian Typography Exhibition
2007 Gil, Pioneers of Spanish Graphic Design

24 The Digital Revolution—and Beyond

1970 1971 Katherine and Michael McCoy Michigan’s Cranbook Academy of Art design department
1981 IBM introduces the personal computer (PC)
1984 Apple’s first generation Macintosh computer
1984 Susan Kare, first screen fonts for the Macintosh computer
1984 VanderLans, Émigré magazine
1985 Aldus introduced PageMaker software for the Macintosh computer
1985 Apple laser printer
1985 The first version of Microsoft Windows is released
1987 Stone, Stone type family; Greiman, bitmapped Design Quarterly
1989 Abbott Miller and Ellen Lupton form Design/Writing/Research
1990 Macintosh II color computer; Adobe, multiple master typefaces; Bernes-Lee, HTML programming language
1991 Kuhr, color-xeroxed prototype for Wired magazine
1992 Carson, Ray Gun magazine
1992 Adobe released its first multiple-master typefaces
1994 33 percent of US households have computers
1994 Wired publishes its first issue
1995 Kit Hinrichs and Corporate Design Foundation, @issue: The Journal of Business and Design
1996 Licko, Mrs Eaves typeface
1996 Kyle Cooper founds Imaginary Forces
1999 The number of Internet users worldwide reaches 150 million worldwide
2001 September 11th terrorist attacks on the United States
2001 Apple releases iPod MP3 music player
2003 The US space shuttle Columbia explodes, killing 7 astronauts
2003 Chahine, Koufiya, first dual-script font family (Latin and Arabic)
2004 The Summer Olympics are held in Athens 2004 Matthew Carter, the Yale typeface
2005 More than 800 million internet users globally, 200 million in the US
2007 Ingmar Bergman dies
2007 Apple introduces the iPhone
2007 Erik Spiekermann appointed to board of directors at Microsoft
2008 Fidel Castro resigns from the Cuban Presidency
2008 The Summer Olympics are held in Beijing
2008 The world stock exchanges crash, triggering a global recession
2009 Barak Obama inaugurated president of the United States
2010 Apple introduces the iPad